Salmonella infections in poultry
Salmonella spp. may not be familiar to everyone, but it is a widespread pathogen that causes localized or systemic infections with economic and public health significance. Unfortunately, this bacterial pathogen, which is commonly transmitted by poultry, remains a major cause of food safety problems worldwide. For many years, the main strategy for controlling Salmonella was the use of antibiotics.
However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern about the rise of antibiotic resistance in microbial communities.
Fortunately, alternative strategies to control Salmonella infections in poultry have been introduced in several countries and have proven successful.
These include feed-based strategies such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and phytobiotics, as well as non-feed-based approaches such as bacteriophages and vaccination. In addition, new technologies such as -omics tools can help evaluate the efficacy of these alternatives and ultimately reduce our reliance on antimicrobials.
While the debate continues about the use of antibiotics in food production, it is important to be aware of these available options and their potential benefits for animal health and consumer safety.
The authors José Martín Ruvalcaba-Gómez, Zuamí Villagrán, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Marcelino Martínez-Núñez, Lorena Jacqueline Gomez-Godínez, Edmundo Ruesga-Gutiérrez, Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza, Ramón Ignacio Arteaga-Garibay, and Angélica Villarruel-López published their research in the article: Non-Antibiotics Strategies to Control Salmonella Infection in Poultry, dated 1 January 2022.
- Salmonella spp. is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes localized or systemic infections and is the most important foodborne pathogen worldwide, with poultry being the main vector of transmission.
- Antibiotics have been the primary strategy for Salmonella control for many years, which has allowed producers to improve the growth and health of food-producing animals. However, the use of antibiotics has been reconsidered as bacterial pathogens have developed and spread a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can spread rapidly within microbial communities.
- The use of alternatives to antibiotics has been recommended and successfully applied in many countries, leading to the main objective of this review:
- (1) describe the importance of Salmonella infections in poultry and the implications associated with the use of antibiotics for disease control;
- (2) discuss feed-based strategies (prebiotics, probiotics, bacterial by-products, phytobiotics) in poultry production for Salmonella control; and
- (3) Explore complementary strategies based on -omics tools to evaluate the impact of using available antibiotic-free alternatives with the goal of reducing reliance on existing antimicrobials to effectively control bacterial infections in poultry.
Salmonella spp. is a facultative intracellular pathogen causing localized or systemic infections, involving economic and public health significance, and remains the leading pathogen of food safety concern worldwide, with poultry being the primary transmission vector.
Antibiotics have been the main strategy for Salmonella control for many years, which has allowed producers to improve the growth and health of food-producing animals.
However, the utilization of antibiotics has been reconsidered since bacterial pathogens have established and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can quickly increase within microbial communities.
The use of alternatives to antibiotics has been recommended and successfully applied in many countries, leading to the core aim of this review, focused on
- describing the importance of Salmonella infection in poultry and the effects associated with the use of antibiotics for disease control;
- discussing the use of feeding-based (prebiotics, probiotics, bacterial subproducts, phytobiotics) and non-feeding-based (bacteriophages, in ovo injection, vaccines) strategies in poultry production for Salmonella control; and
- exploring the use of complementary strategies, highlighting those based on -omics tools, to assess the effects of using the available antibiotic-free alternatives and their role in lowering dependency on the existing antimicrobial substances to manage bacterial infections in poultry effectively.
Keywords: Salmonella; antibiotics; poultry; prebiotics; probiotics; vaccines.
Copyright: the authors.