Salmonella phage CKT1 and Salmonella Pullorum
While conventional antibiotics have long been used to control Salmonella pullorum infections in poultry, concerns about drug resistance have led to research into alternative methods.
This is where phage therapy comes in – the use of bacteriophages, or viruses that specifically target and infect bacterial cells, to treat bacterial infections.
A recent study evaluating the efficacy of the phage CKT1 against S. pullorum found that a single treatment with the phage significantly improved weight loss in infected chicks. Phage therapy also reduced the enlargement of the liver and spleen that often occurs with S. pullorum infection.
These promising results suggest that phage therapy could be a valuable tool for controlling Pullorum disease in poultry production. However, further research is needed to fully understand its potential as an alternative to antibiotic use.
The authors Jiaqi Huang, Lu Liang, Ketong Cui, Peiyong Li, Guijuan Hao, Shuhong Sun discuss these findings further in their article Salmonella phage CKT1 significantly relieves the body weight loss of chicks by normalizing the abnormal intestinal microbiome caused by hypervirulent Salmonella Pullorum, dated March 2022.
- Pullorum disease caused by Salmonella pullorum is an important disease for the poultry industry due to high morbidity and mortality in many countries.
- Phage therapy is emerging as an alternative strategy to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections in young chicks.
- The therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella phage CKT1 against hypervirulent arthritis-causing S. pullorum was investigated, and it was found that a single phage treatment after hypervirulent S. pullorum infection significantly improved chick body weight loss.
- Compared with the enlarged liver and spleen in the group infected with Salmonella alone, phage administration significantly reduced the liver/body and spleen/body weight ratios, the bacterial load on the organs, and the extent of hepatic sinusoidal dilatation and congestion.
Pullorum disease caused by Salmonella Pullorum remains an important disease for the poultry industry due to high morbidity and mortality in many countries.
Phage therapy is becoming an alternative strategy to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections in young chicks. However, how bacteriophages affect the growth performance of chicks infected with S. Pullorum remains poorly understood. Herein, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella phage CKT1 against hypervirulent arthritis-causing S. Pullorum.
The results showed that single phage treatment after hypervirulent S. Pullorum infection significantly improved body weight loss of chicks. Compared with enlarged liver and spleen in only Salmonella challenged group, phage administration substantially reduced the liver/body and spleen/body weight ratios, bacterial loads in organs and the degree of hepatic sinusoidal dilatation and congestion.
Moreover, phage CKT1 can enter the organs of chicks and stay for at least 3 d in liver and spleen, and promote higher serum levels of IL-6 production within 6 d postinfection, indicating phage-induced bacterial lysis may be involved in inflammatory immune response to S. Pullorum infection.
Analysis of the microbiome of gastrointestinal tract of chicks demonstrated that Salmonella challenge significantly reduced the relative abundances of Lachnoclostridium and Blautia, resulting in remarkably increased Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella becoming the predominant bacterial taxa.
In contrast, the use of phage CKT1 significantly reduced Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella populations in intestine, permitting the proliferation of beneficial microbiota in Firmicutes including Lachnoclostridium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pseudoflavonifractor.
In addition, phage alone treatments did not affect the normal gut microbiota structure of chicks, and phage therapy on Salmonella infected chicks increased bacteria species richness in the cecum.
These results suggest that Salmonella phage CKT1 could improve growth performance of chicks challenged with S. Pullorum by normalizing the abnormal intestinal microbiome.
Keywords: Salmonella Pullorum; bacteriophage; chick; growth performance; intestinal microbiome.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.